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Cognitive bias

The hindsight bias is a common cognitive bias that involves the tendency to see events, even random ones, as more predictable than they are. It's also commonly referred to as the I knew it all along phenomenon. Some examples of the hindsight bias include: Insisting that you knew who was going to win a football game once the event is ove What Is Cognitive Bias? A cognitive bias is a systematic error in thinking that occurs when people are processing and interpreting information in the world around them and affects the decisions and judgments that they make. The human brain is powerful but subject to limitations Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm and/or rationality in judgment. They are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.. Although the reality of most of these biases is confirmed by reproducible research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. Several theoretical causes are known for some cognitive biases. Cognitive bias measures of animals' emotional or 'affective' state by measuring the way that an animal perceives incoming information and responds to it. This concept for animals is based on work that shows that people in negative emotional states will show increased attention to negative stimuli and are more likely to make pessimistic interpretations of ambiguous situations

Cognitive Biases: 10 Common Types of Bia

Updated October 31, 2018 A cognitive bias is a systematic error in thinking that impacts one's choices and judgments. The concept of cognitive bias was first proposed by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in a 1974 article in Science. Since then, researchers have identified and studied numerous types of cognitive biases What is Cognitive Bias? A cognitive bias is an error in cognition that arises in a person's line of reasoning when making a decision is flawed by personal beliefs. Cognitive errors play a major role in behavioral finance theory and are studied by investors and academics alike According to the Cognitive Bias Codex, there are an estimated 180 cognitive biases (this list is frequently updated.) Created by John Manoogian III and Buster Benson, this codex is a useful tool for visually representing all of the known biases that exist to date. The biases are arranged in a circle and can be divided into four quadrants Cognitive bias refers to the systematic pattern of devia-tion from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby infer-ences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals create their own subjec-tive social reality from their perception of the input. Unconscious or implicit bias refers to biases in judg Cognitive biases can affect your decision-making skills, limit your problem-solving abilities, hamper your career success, damage the reliability of your memories, challenge your ability to respond..

Cognitive biases can also affect the integration of data that is critical in defining a clinical candidate (Table 8).Types of biases that can arise include (a) overconfidence in the project rationale leading to a lack of due-diligence in the mode of action studies (MOA), (b) insufficient understanding of the reliability of individual parameters leading to poor decisions being made, 155 (c. What Is Cognitive Bias? A cognitive bias is a strong, preconceived notion of someone or something, based on information we have, perceive to have, or lack. These preconceptions are mental shortcuts the human brain produces to expedite information processing—to quickly help it make sense of what it is seeing Cognitive biases are the mental tendencies that prevent us from living up to those standards and being completely rational. While this article lists some basic cognitive biases that have been observed by philosophers and behavior scientists, it's a long way from a complete list - there are literally thousands of cognitive biases out there Cognitive bias is a systematic way in which the context and framing of information influence individuals' judgement and decision making. Watch the video below to learn about the 12 most common cognitive biases

cognitive bias meaning: 1. the way a particular person understands events, facts, and other people, which is based on their. Learn more We are going to be explaining 12 cognitive biases in this video and presenting them in a format that you can easily understand to help you make better decisi.. What Are Cognitive Biases? Cognitive biases are mental mistakes that people make when making judgments about life and other people. They typically help us find shortcuts that make it easier to navigate through everyday situations What are cognitive biases? Cognitive biases are flaws in human thinking process due to which we make poor decisions or perform an incorrect action. Various factors influence the error like memory, information available, emotional state, and circumstances Cognitive Bias. People generally believe that they are mostly rational in their thinking, decisions, and actions. But even the smartest and best educated people often commit cognitive errors as they make financial, medical, personal and ethical decisions. These errors in thinking, also called cognitive bias, affect all people in virtually every.

What Is Cognitive Bias? - Verywell Min

cognitive bias definition: 1. the way a particular person understands events, facts, and other people, which is based on their. Learn more الانحياز المعرفي (بالإنجليزية: Cognitive bias)‏ هو نمط من الانحراف في اتخاذ الأحكام يحدث في حالات معينة، ويؤدي إلى تشويه للإدراك الحسي أو حكم غير دقيق أو تفسير غير منطقي، أو ما يسمى عموماً باللاعقلانية A cognitive bias that causes people to believe that they are at a lesser risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others. When it comes to predicting what will happen to us tomorrow, next week, or fifty years from now, we overestimate the likelihood of positive events A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from rationality, which occurs due to the way our cognitive system works. Accordingly, cognitive biases cause us to be irrational in the way we search for, evaluate, interpret, judge, use, and remember information, as well as in the way we make decisions cognitive bias, and the infl uence this can have on our decision-making.10-12 Cognitive biases, also known as 'heuristics', are cognitive short cuts used to aid our decision-making. A heuristic can be thought of as a cognitive 'rule of thumb' or cognitive guideline that one subconsciously applies to

List of cognitive biases - Wikipedi

Cognitive Biases Decision-Making and Cognitive Biases. J. Ehrlinger, As a category, cognitive biases in decision making... Information Biases. Different strategies have been proposed to overcome cognitive biases. Some debiasing interventions... Core Network Principles. The following link. Cognitive biases are unconscious errors in thinking that arise from problems related to memory, attention, and other mental mistakes. These biases result from our brain's efforts to simplify the incredibly complex world in which we live. Confirmation bias, hindsight bias, self-serving bias, anchoring bias, availability bias, the framing. A large number of cognitive biases are part of our brain's intuitive and automatic functioning, or what is known as the system 1 thinking, which is essential to our survival. It helps us identify possible threats and quickly steer away from them A cognitive bias is a flaw in judgment which is caused by memory, social attribution, and statistical errors. These biases are common to all humans, and many of them follow predictable and obvious patterns. Humans develop them for a range of reasons; they help the brain to process information quickly, for example, even when that processing is.

A cognitive bias is an inherent thinking 'blind spot' that reduces thinking accuracy and results inaccurate-and often irrational-conclusions. Much like logical fallacies, cognitive biases can be viewed as either as causes or effects but can generally be reduced to broken thinking. Not all 'broken thinking,' blind spots, and failures. 54. Cognitive biases categories • Biases due to the way the patient is presented - Triage cueing • Biases due to inheriting someone else's thinking - Diagnostic momentum • Biases due to physician's personality and affect, decision style - Ego bias, blind spot bias. 55. Critical Thinking (1) 1 Cognitive biases affect everyone. The human brain is the epicentre of what we value, why we behave the way we do and how we make decisions. But the brain operates on circuitry with a limited processing capacity. As a result, we rely on mental shortcuts to navigate everyday life. By recognizing and anticipating cognitive biases through the.

Cognitive Bias - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Kognitive Verzerrung ( englisch cognitive bias oder cognitive illusions) ist ein kognitionspsychologischer Sammelbegriff für systematische fehlerhafte Neigungen beim Wahrnehmen, Erinnern, Denken und Urteilen. Sie bleiben meist unbewusst und basieren auf kognitiven Heuristiken (vergleiche Vorurteil ) Cognitive bias has frequently been discussed in general healthcare environments where it may affect both patient care and staff wellbeing, 2-4 and also in science settings. 5-7 Biases in public health medicine have been well recognised. 8-12 There are a number of ways in which cognitive bias can be seen to play out in the covid-19 pandemic Cognitive biases are systematic errors in the thinking process that alter how we interpret information and make decisions. Biases are like roadblocks and limitations in your brain. The brain wants. By cognitive bias, we mean cases in which human cognition reliably produces representations that are systematically distorted compared to some aspect of objective reality. We note that the term bias is used in the literature in a number of different ways (see, e.g., Johnson,. Cognitive Biases in the Political Arena. With the 2020 U.S. presidential election fast approaching, many people will be glued to the 24-hour news cycle to stay up to date on political developments. Yet, when searching for facts, our own cognitive biases often get in the way

Cognitive bias. Cognitive biases are our systematic inclinations towards certain patterns of erroneous thinking (or irrationality) when processing and interpreting information in the world around us. They are largely products of evolution to help us survive by simplifying information processing Biases and heuristics are like two sides of the same coin, and bias carries the more negative connotations of when a heuristic goes wrong. Examples of cognitive biases. We've already seen a few examples in previous weeks, like optimism bias and hindsight bias, but I saved the best for this section

Cognitive vs Emotional Biases. The economic and financial theory is based on the assumption that individuals will act rationally and consider all available information in their decision-making process, and that markets are efficient. But this is rarely the case. Studies have shown that 80% of individual investors and 30% of institutional investors are not always logical Identified in 2011 by Michael Norton (Harvard Business School) and his colleagues, this cognitive bias refers to our tendency to attach a higher value to things we help create. Combining the Ikea Effect with other related traits, such as our willingness to pay a premium for customization, is a strategy employed by companies seeking to increase. Cognitive biases are just tools, useful in the right contexts, harmful in others. They're the only tools we've got, and they're even pretty good at what they're meant to do. We might as well get familiar with them and even appreciate that we at least have some ability to process the universe with our mysterious brains

Cognitive Bias: How Your Mind Plays Tricks on You and How to Overcome That at Work Optimism Bias. Optimism bias is our tendency to overestimate the odds of our own success compared to other people's. Negativity Bias. Negativity bias is the tendency to change our thought processes and behaviors more. Cognitive Biases, Discrimination, Heuristics, Prejudice, Stereotypes, Racism, Sexism, Self-Serving Bias, Actor/Observer Bias, Change Bias A bias is a tendency, inclination, or prejudice toward or. Cognitive Bias New Content From Current Directions in Psychological Science A sample of articles on cultures of sustainability, cognitive-bias modification to treat addiction, probabilistic biases, cognitive training, the development of working memory, acquisition of fears and phobias, and a sleep-and-memory research program Cognitive Bias. An exciting ride so far. And now, I am at the top of the rollercoaster! The last six months have been highly action packed. What began in Aug 2010 at NYC, during a b-school fair, has now reached the mid point. During this period I have spent substantial time researching schools, reaching out to current students and alumni.

Cognitive bias in school-based research In developing a culture of research at Veritas MAT, I have been thinking about how we can best support our staff team in spotting bias in their own research and in the research of others. Cognitive bias A VideoSong on the various types of cognitive bias for my AP Psychology students. Warning... Attention... Achtung... The grammar police have rightly detecte.. How Different Cognitive Bias Impact Your Presentation. The human brain is a weirdly wonderful organ. It processes gazillions of sensory data points in a matter of seconds. But such supersonic cognitive speed comes at a toll. Rather than bringing up a ton of information from memory, our brain often leans on mental shortcuts to accelerate thinking Cognitive bias is a condition internal auditors should be aware of and mitigate so its influence on risk assessment outcomes is minimized, but they shouldn't overthink it. Judgment will always be a factor in risk assessment outcomes, and auditors' professional judgments have value

What Is Cognitive Bias? Definition and Example

  1. d's shortcuts that play out in our everyday lives. They save our brain's energy and prevent us from having to critically think about every action we take. For example, when you are driving your car and see a red light, your foot automatically goes to the brake. You don't have to consciously think, Red light means.
  2. Cognitive bias includes a variety of unconscious influences, heuristics, and behaviors which aid our decision making [1]. These shortcuts can be helpful in clinical decision making, but they can also lead to medical errors. A study by Graber et al. found that 74% of diagnostic errors in internal.
  3. ds are constantly bombarded with more information than they could ever handle. As a survival mechanism we developed a series of shortcuts and systems to handle information. Most of these shortcuts are helpful.
  4. A pervasive cognitive bias that causes people to see their own behavioral choices and judgments as relatively common and appropriate to existing circumstances. Observer-expectancy effect. A form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment. Semmelweis refle
  5. Cognitive bias will bring us a lot of them on a platter. The result: we'll come up with wrong solutions. We'll get lost on the wrong path. The only condition we need to have these biases: being human. Depending on the project, the impact of these biases fills a whole spectrum from insignificant to highly detrimental
  6. Cognitive biases contribute significantly to diagnostic and treatment errors. 1,2 A 2016 review of their roles in decision making lists 4 domains of concern for physicians: gathering and interpreting evidence, taking action, and evaluating decisions. 3 Although experts have identified many different types of cognitive biases, specific examples.
24 Cognitive Biases stuffing up your thinking

5. Status Quo Bias. Many psychologists agree that cognitive biases are based on survival instincts. Our fifth and final example, status quo bias, is a prime example of how our need for stability and routine can influence our behavior. Status quo bias is a preference for things to stay relatively unchanged. Individuals experiencing status quo. Cognitive bias describes the inherent thinking errors that humans make in processing information. Some of these have been verified empirically in the field of psychology, while others are considered general categories of bias.These thinking errors prevent one from accurately understanding reality, even when confronted with all the needed data and evidence to form an accurate view The list of cognitive biases is long and might look downright frightening for many people. To make this easier to digest, Laurence and I selected 52 out of the list and organized them into 5 categories: Decision-making & behaviour. Thinking & problem solving. Memories & recalling. Interview & user testing 5. Conservatism bias. In Cognitive Psychology, conservatism bias is a mental process in which people tend to cling to their former views and beliefs.This happens at the expense of admitting new information. It causes individuals to overweight their opinions and to under react to basic facts or sample evidence 3 cognitive biases perpetuating racism at work - and how to overcome them. 1. Change systems, not individuals. Image: Unsplash/Christina @ wocintechchat.com. In the wake of global protests against racial injustice, companies and individuals have been doing more to tackle racial inequality. But positive change can only be achieved through a.

Cognitive bias is increasingly recognised as an important source of medical error, and is both ubiquitous across clinical practice yet incompletely understood. This increasing awareness of bias has resulted in a surge in clinical and psychological research in the area and development of various 'debiasing strategies'. This paper describes the potential origins of bias based o Cognitive biases can be characterized as the tendency to make decisions and take action based on limited acquisition and/or processing of information or on self-interest, overconfidence, or.

Cognitive Bias - Examples, List of Top 10 Types of Biase

Cognitive Illusions: A Handbook on Fallacies and Biases in Thinking, Judgement and Memory; Gilovich, T.; Griffin, D.; Kahneman, D. (2002). Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment; Kahneman, D. (2013). Thinking, Fast and Slow; 67 Ways to Increase Conversion with Cognitive Biases; The Importance of Cognitive Bias in Experience. So, here are four cognitive biases that social media exploits to lead us all to false beliefs. There are more, of course, but these are the big ones. 1. The Illusory Truth Effect. This is the. A cognitive bias is a person's tendency to make errors in judgment based on cognitive factors, and is a phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology.Forms of cognitive bias include errors in statistical judgment, social attribution, and memory that are common to all human beings. Such biases drastically skew the reliability of anecdotal and legal evidence 50 Types of Common Cognitive Biases. Fundamental Attribution Error: We judge others on their personality or fundamental character, but we judge ourselves on the situation.; Self-Serving Bias: Our failures are situational, but our successes are our responsibility. In-Group Favoritism: We favor people who are in our in-group as opposed to an out-group..

Coronavirus and cognitive bias: The surprising reasons

Overcoming cognitive biases is an essential part of UX practice. Interestingly, UX practitioners who believe that these biases affect other people, not me suffer from blind-spot bias. Blind-spot bias is the failure to notice your own cognitive biases English: Wikipedia's list of 188 cognitive biases, grouped into categories and rendered by John Manoogian III (jm3) as a radial dendrogram (circle diagram). Category model by Buster Benson, biases linked to corresponding Wikipedia articles by TilmannR. The source below can be used to create translated or updated versions of this file A cognitive bias is a flaw in our thinking that distorts the way we perceive and act. The present estimate, according to Wikipedia, is that there are 140 of them. A cognitive bias is not classified as pathological but rather as a normal, perhaps even helpful event in our daily lives. Most of them however seem distinctly unhelpful

Cognitive bias, at bottom, is based on belief about something. The stronger the fact less belief becomes, the more cognitively biased the believer(s) will be. 2. Your cognitive bias is meaningless to me when I do not hold the same belief(s), and, of course, this works the other way round Cognitive bias es, or predispositions to think in a way that leads to failures in judgment, can also be caused by affect and motivation. Prolonged learning in a regular and predictable environment increases the successfulness of heuristics, whereas uncertain and unpredictable environments are a chief cause of heuristic failure ( Improving. A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation and limitation in objective thinking or rationality. Individuals perceive and filter the input based on their own subjective reality and not the objective input. This has a profound effect on our thinking, understanding, action, and behavior

Cognitive Biases Defined: 7 Examples and Resource

Cognitive bias. This exists when someone thinks in a way that can be regarded as irrational or that goes against good judgement. Cognitive biases are usually a result of either mental shortcuts or heuristics (i.e. techniques that we use to help us make decisions more quickly) or 'motivational' explanations A cognitive bias refers to the habits/patterns in our thinking that make us conclude the wrong things from time to time. It's in our wiring, unconscious and unavoidable. Psychological thinking processes that are optimised to interpret and act upon an environment comprised of limitless information, often in a timely manner that has your. Cognitive biases, or psychological triggers are our brain's tendency to be persuaded by unconscious triggers that affect our decision making process. From Wikipedia: A cognitive bias refers to a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an.

Thanks to Apneaman for bringing this image to my attention, it's very interesting.. This info-graphic was constructed from a list of cognitive biases assembled by a team of experts collaborating via Wikipedia over a 15 year period.. A cognitive bias is defined as:. A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Analysis. We used a team-based approach to framework analysis, which has been used in other decision-making studies 14, including those measuring cognitive bias. 20 A limitation in cognitive bias research is the lack of a standardized list or categorization of cognitive biases. We reviewed prior systematic 17,21 and narrative reviews 18,22, as well as prior studies describing examples of. 6 Types of Cognitive Bias to Take into Account When Presenting 1. Anchoring Bias. An anchoring bias is a tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information obtained and... 2. Confirmation Bias. Confirmation bias tends to overvalue information that confirms previously held beliefs at.

Cognitive psychologists and researchers have identified over 175 cognitive biases. Below is a brief summary of some of the most common biases than can affect everyday life and decision-making: Actor-Observer Bias: This bias relates to the differences in how we appraise our own behaviour, versus the behaviour of others This cognitive bias — which can be summed up by the classic I knew it all along — consists of overestimating, after an event has taken place, the fact that it was predictable or probable. The goal is to bring the present (the event once it has occurred) into line with the past, or the context preceding the event You can find a more complete list of cognitive biases on Wikipedia's Cognitive Biases article.↵ Confirmation bias - APA Dictionary of Psychology↵ This is known as the Backfire Effect. See: Wood, T., Porter, E. (2019). The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes' Steadfast Factual Adherence. Political Behavior. 41, 135-163

Moral Decision Making - Ethics Unwrapped - UT Austin

We humans are messy, illogical creatures who like to imagine we're in control—but we blithely let our biases lead us astray. In Design for Cognitive Bias, David Dylan Thomas lays bare the irrational forces that shape our everyday decisions and, inevitably, inform the experiences we craft.Once we grasp the logic powering these forces, we stand a fighting chance of confronting them. A cognitive bias is a mistake in reasoning, evaluating, remembering, or other cognitive process, often occurring as a result of holding onto one's preferences and beliefs regardless of contrary information. Psychologists study cognitive biases as they relate to memory, reasoning, and decision-making. Many kinds of cognitive biases exist

Cognitive Bias: Understanding How It Affects Your Decision

This cognitive bias is especially pervasive amongst experts, who tend to look back at surprising political elections and technological innovations, and reframe their wrong predictions to match reality. Within organizations, hindsight bias rewards and promotes reckless risk seekers, who tend to take crazy gambles that work A heuristic is a mental shortcut used to solve a particular problem; it is a quick, informal, and intuitive algorithm your brain uses to generate an approximate answer to a reasoning question. For the most part, heuristics are helpful, because the.. Cognitive bias, by definition, is a mistake in reasoning, evaluating, or remembering that occurs as a result of holding onto one's own preferences and beliefs regardless of receiving contrary information. For many, cognitive bias occurs subconsciously every day and inevitably influences the decision-making process which can lead to. Cognitive bias in data science can be a dangerous thing. Here are five examples of common cognitive biases in data science and tips for how to avoid them. Everyone is prey to cognitive biases that skew thinking, but data scientists must prevent them from spoiling their work

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Assessment on Cognitive Biases in the Workplace to Address Unconscious Bias. The assessment starts with an evaluation of how frequently each of the 30 cognitive biases occurred in your workplace in the last year in the form of percentages. Don't feel obliged to be absolutely precise, approximate numbers are fine The framing effect bias is a facilitated cognitive bias that occurs when one's decisions are swayed depending on how information is presented through data quantity and presentation (emphasis, style, colors, fonts, size, etc.), hierarchical order, lack of appropriate information when needed, etc Four months ago I attempted to synthesize Wikipedia's crazy list of cognitive biases, and after banging my head against the wall for weeks, came up with this Cognitive Bias Cheat Sheet which. These cognitive biases impact conversion optimization, too. When you grasp just a few of these psychological nuggets, the advantage you possess is almost unfair. But, don't be annoying about it. And, above all, be ethical in the way you use these and any other persuasion techniques

Often, two different biases will represent opposite ends of a cognitive spectrum, both ends of which can result in errors. This list represents the cognitive biases that are most often described in the context of medical errors, but there are many other cognitive biases that affect our daily lives A cognitive bias disrupts a normal cognitive process like reasoning, evaluating, and recalling memories. This perception mainly results from the tendency for individuals to put their own beliefs, mood, and preferences above any outside fact or opinion. Cognitive bias is a distortion in our perception of reality Il bias cognitivo (pronuncia inglese [ˈbaɪəs]) o distorsione cognitiva è un pattern sistematico di deviazione dalla norma o dalla razionalità nel giudizio.In psicologia indica una tendenza a creare la propria realtà soggettiva, non necessariamente corrispondente all'evidenza, sviluppata sulla base dell'interpretazione delle informazioni in possesso, anche se non logicamente o. literature on cognitive heuristics and biases wrongly slides from (1) the claim that some bias influences a norm to (2) the claim that the norm should be rejected or accepted. If my argument is correct, the influence of cognitive heuristics and biases on a legal norm neither justifies automatically rejecting nor automaticall Cognitive bias refers to mental shortcuts humans subconsciously take when processing and interpreting information prior to making decisions. Bias is an attempt to simplify information processing.

Bias - YouTube

Cognitive Biases - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

The Science of User Experience explains the importance of using our brain's errors and biases in developing solutions for software products and development teams, and UX CORE consists of 105 hands-on examples of cognitive biases used in software development and team management. He sincerely believes that humanity is on the verge of a. Cognitive biases similar to those of human beings can even be found in animals as simple as pigs, dogs, rats, and honeybees. Few would argue that these animals have libertarian free will. This lends further support to the conclusion that our cognitive biases do not stem from free choices, but in fact have a biological basis. b Heuristics and biases as measures of critical thinking: Associations with cognitive ability and thinking dispositions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 4, 930-941. More reference Kahneman: Your Cognitive Biases Act Like Optical Illusions. Meeting Daniel Kahneman in real life is the psych-nerd equivalent of hanging out with Bob Dylan. Both have recently been awarded Nobel Prizes. Both reformed their fields. While Dylan bulldozed folk and reinvented rock with an electric guitar, Kahneman and his longtime collaborator Amos.

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The informative and welcome Viewpoint by experts in public health policy throw light on cognitive bias during COVID-19 that can affect optimal decision making and effective communication. There is a balance that must be struck between human cognition and statistical science to mitigate the inherent and pervasive bias in treating patients. Ge n der and racial bias concerning image AI, also known as cognitive AI bias, is a concept where models and algorithms built by engineers fail to provide optimal services to people of a specific gender or race. Most often in image AI, even recognition systems fail to detect and recognize underrepresented genders and races of people

How to Identify Cognitive Bias: 12 Examples of Cognitive

COGNITIVE BIAS meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionar

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