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Osteoclast

Osteoclast - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

osteoclast a multinucleate ameoboid cell that breaks down bone during growth and remodelling. (also called Chomdrioclast ) same kind that breaks down cartilage in the transformation to bone Osteoclasts are multinucleated monocyte-macrophage derivatives that degrade bone. Their specialized role is central to a process that continuously removes and replaces segments of the skeleton in the higher vertebrates. Osteoclasts allow skeletal mineral to be used to manage extracellular calcium ac . Osteoclasts are multinucleated. The osteoclast is a tissue-specific macrophage polykaryon created by the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursors cells at or near the bone surface الخلية ناقضة العظم أو هادمة العظم (بالإنجليزية: Osteoclast)‏ هي إحدى الخلايا الموجودة في العظم، ووظيفتها هضم العظم الزائد وغير المفيد. كما ويوجد في العظم خلايا بنائة وخلايا برعمية The second film in the bone biology series describes the role and functions of the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue (osteoclasts) and building..

Osteoclast cell Britannic

The osteoclast is a large, multinucleated cell that is differentiated from monocyte/macrophage lineage cells by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). RANKL transduces its signal through the signaling receptor, RANK The mechanisms behind osteoclast fusion are similarly poorly understood, and these data suggest GBP-mediated regulation of cell fusion may be important for inflammatory bone remodeling Osteoclast formation is regulated primarily by macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which promotes the differentiation of myeloid progenitors into promonocytes, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), a potent tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine that causes the differentiation and fusion of promonocytes into osteoclasts Osteoclast. Naar navigatie springen Naar zoeken springen. Een osteoclast. Er vindt in het menselijk lichaam voortdurend ombouw plaats van botweefsel. Cellen met de naam osteoclasten breken bot af (osteoclasie), de osteoblasten bouwen bot op. De periode dat de osteoclasten het bot oplossen, wordt osteolyse genoemd. Bij de opbouw van het bot. Medical Definition of osteoclast. 1 : any of the large multinucleate cells closely associated with areas of bone resorption (as in a fracture that is healing) — compare chondroclast. 2 : an instrument for performing osteoclasis

Osteoclast: A cell that nibbles at and breaks down bone and is responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells (cells with more than one nucleus) that differentiate from another type of cell called a macrophage. In normal bone, bone formation and bone resorption are closely coupled processes involved in the normal. osteoclast differentiation is vital in successfully managing such diseases. This is an attempt to give a birds-eye-view of the players in osteoclast formation and differentiation in a brief and concise manner. Key words: osteoclasts, osteoclast differentiation, osteoclastogenesis

Osteoblasts (from the Greek combining forms for bone, ὀστέο-, osteo-and βλαστάνω, blastanō germinate) are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone.However, in the process of bone formation, osteoblasts function in groups of connected cells.Individual cells cannot make bone. A group of organized osteoblasts together with the bone made by a unit of cells is usually. 破骨細胞(Osteoclast,其中Osteo-來自古希臘語ὀστέον ,意爲骨,-clast來自古希臘語κλαστός ,意爲破壞)是一種存在於骨組織中的細胞,由多個單核細胞融合而成,直徑最大可達到100微米,細胞核的數目一般是6-50個。破骨細胞由核因子B配體激活受體(RANKL),以及巨噬細胞集落刺激因子刺激分化產生。它的主要功能是通過釋放乳酸、檸檬酸、碳酸、碳酸酐酶及溶酶體酶等. Define osteoclast. osteoclast synonyms, osteoclast pronunciation, osteoclast translation, English dictionary definition of osteoclast. n. 1. A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities. 2. An instrument used in.. Osteoclast: An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that is responsible for the bone resorption. Developed from. Osteoblast: Osteoblasts are developed from the osteogenic cells. Osteoclast: Osteoclasts are developed from monocytes or macrophages. Size of the Cells. Osteoblast: Osteoblasts are smaller, uninucleated cells

Osteoclast: Definition, Function & Formation - Video

Osteoclast strategy on the Monster Legends Competitive Wiki. Defeating Osteoclast isn't an easy task because when you have no flesh, there's less of you to hurt. If you're looking for a resilient monster, this is your guy osteoclast. [ ŏs ′tē-ə-klăst′ ] A specialized bone cell that absorbs bone, allowing for the deposition of new bone and maintenance of bone strength. Osteoclasts secrete enyzmes that dissolve the matrix of old bone tissue and acids that dissolve bone salts, which contain calcium and phosphorus Gene ID: 126014, updated on 6-May-2021. Summary. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that resorb bone and are essential for bone homeostasis. This gene encodes an osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), which is a member of the leukocyte receptor complex protein family that plays critical roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses Mesenchymal and hematopoietic lineages for the 'soil and seed', respectively, of osteoclast formation. For osteoclast development, hematopoietic precursor cells with RANK that derive from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) need to interact with osteoblasts, which present RANKL on the cell surface ( 6).According to our analysis ( 7), on the way to differentiating into adipocytes from.

What are Osteoclasts? - News Medica

  1. Osteocytes are cells that form the bones themselves, osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of new osteocytes, whereas osteoclasts are responsible for the resorption of old bone matter. Thus, between them, the three types of bone cells regulate the formation, sustenance, and decay of bones
  2. Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA..
  3. Introduction of Osteoclast. Currently, in vitro culture of osteoclasts is based on the theory that osteocytes are a fusion of hematopoietic monocyte precursor cells. That is, mononuclear cells are isolated from bone marrow or peripheral blood and spleen, and some cytokines, hormones and other inducers are added to induce monocyte differentiation, and finally, multinucleated osteoclasts are.
  4. This explosion in osteoclast biology is reflected by the large number of reviews which appeared during the last decade. Here I will summarize the classical issues (origin, differentiation, and activity) in a general manner, and will discuss an untouched issue (multinucleation) and a relatively novel aspect of osteoclast biology.
  5. What does osteoclast mean? A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities
  6. OSM, LIF, and osteoclast-derived CT-1 promoted bone formation in vitro and in vivo [38,39,40,41]. Thus, it has been proposed that osteoclast-derived CT-1 as a coupling factor suppresses sclerostin expression in osteocytes to promote transitions from bone resorption to formation . Furthermore, several studies in humans and mice demonstrated that.

Find osteoclast stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day This osteoclast-mediated bone destruction was protected by the anti-PD-1 treatment or Pd1 deletion. Second, TRAP staining in tumor-bearing BM and serum CTX-I analysis in serum demonstrated functionality of PD-1 blockade in suppressing osteoclast formation and osteoclast overactivation

Osteoclast definition of osteoclast by Medical dictionar

Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF- α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells. Remarkably, osteoclast activation and bone loss in long bones were clearly reduced, suggesting a strong impact of osteocyte death on osteoclast activation during inflammatory arthritis. Osteocyte death is also a central factor in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis, which is triggered by the disruption of blood supply to confined areas of the bone The additional RANKL-mediated osteoclast frequency and activity will in turn increase secretion of growth factors, or matrix derived factors, which can ultimately increase tumor growth and bone destruction activity. Clinical significance RANKL, through its ability to stimulate osteoclast formation and activity, is a critical mediator of bone. The osteoclast is a very metabolically active cell requiring high ATP use to drive the H+-ATPase of the ruffled membrane. For this reason, these cells are rich in mitochondria, like mitochondria-rich, proton-secreting epithelial cells ( 36, 37 ). Mitochondria are also important in mediating apoptosis ( 38 )

TRAP positive multinuleated osteoclast-like cells will occur. Concentration of PMA is the key to success induction. Hope this will do some help. View. 8 Recommendations; Ludovica Parisi osteoclast-independent bone resorption by cancer cells in some in vitro studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6865 7 of 14 Figure 2. Three possible models of cancer-induced bone degradation. (A) In the vicious cycle model, cancer cells produce growth factors and cytokines that directly and indirectly stimulat ABSTRACT: Bone is a frequent site of cancer metastasis. Bone metastases can result in bone destruction or new bone formation. Bone destruction is mediated by factors produced or induced by tumor cells that stimulate formation and activation of osteoclasts, the normal bone-resorbing cells. Local bone destruction also occurs in patients with osteoblastic metastases and may precede or occur. Osteoclast inhibitors (also called antiresorptive agents), such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, significantly reduce both the frequency and time to onset of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases from a wide variety of cancer types. The benefits of osteoclast inhibitors in patients with bone metastases from solid. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a mitochondrial membrane GTPase and regulates mitochondrial fission. In this study, we found that the cytokine RANKL increased the expression of DRP1 and its receptor proteins, Fis1, Mid49, and Mid 51, during osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages

The osteoclast moved quite extensively, and during this movement the osteoblast-like cells made space for the osteoclast. During these activities the osteoclast formed different compartments that were connected to each other with thin, tubular, cytoplasmic, bridge-like structures. Each compartment thus formed contained a number of nuclei The phytochemical substances, coumarin derivatives, have demonstrated antiresorptive bone effects by suppressing osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo . Recently, we have identified 5′-hydroxy auraptene (5′-HA), a coumarin derivative isolated from Lotus lalambensis Schweinf, as a novel stimulator for osteoblast differentiation Media in category Osteoclast. The following 20 files are in this category, out of 20 total. Bone degrading cells - Osteoclast precursors -- Smart-Servier.jpg 10,240 × 5,760; 1.48 MB. Bone degrading cells - Osteoclast precursors 1 -- Smart-Servier.png 1,389 × 1,466; 270 KB In conclusion, we demonstrated that the increased RANKL was correlated with the host's osteoclast-mediated bone loss in the context of schistosome infection, and that both B cells and CD4 + T cells, particularly Tfh cells, a dominant subset of RANKL-producing CD4 + T cells, are involved in schistosome infection-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus.

How the osteoclast degrades bone - PubMe

تنظيم عمل خلايا osteoclast و osteoblast . ⚜️ غياب و نقصان الإستروجين يسبب :-osteoblast انخفاض نشاط ال وهي خلايا مسؤلة عن بناء العظام osteoclast زيادة نشاط خلايا ال التي لها دور في اخراج للكالسيوم من العظا The instructive capabilities of extracellular matrix-inspired materials for osteoprogenitor differentiation have sparked interest in understanding modulation of other cell types within the bone regenerative microenvironment. We previously demonstrated that nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan (MC-GAG) scaffolds efficiently induced osteoprogenitor differentiation and bone. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are types of cells the human body uses to repair broken bones. Osteoclasts break down old bone tissue allowing osteoblasts to replace it with new material. Together, these cells facilitate bone mending and bone growth. Osteoblasts are single nuclei cells that operate in groups to form bone Induces bone resorption, acting probably through a signaling cascade which results in the secretion of factor (s) enhancing osteoclast formation and activity. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a novel peptide (OSF) that enhances osteoclast formation and bone resorption

osteoporosis; bone homeostasis; osteoblast; osteoclast; chemokine; During bone remodeling, which is needed to maintain skeletal rigidity and stability, osteoblasts and osteoclasts form a functional unit to achieve a balance of bone resorption and formation ().Deficiencies in this bone cell coupling, e.g., by excess osteoclast activity, lead to reduced bone mineral density and increased bone. The osteoclast is the cell responsible for removing both the organic and inorganic components of bone. It is derived from hematopoietic progenitors in the macrophage lineage and differentiates in response to the tumor necrosis factor family cytokine receptor activator of NFκB ligand. αvβ3 integrin mediates cell adhesion necessary for. A giant osteoclast was defined as one having at least three of the following characteristics: more than eight nuclear profiles (two-dimensional images of a section taken through three-dimensional. osteoclast-activating factor: [ fak´ter ] an agent or element that contributes to the production of a result. accelerator factor factor V , one of the coagulation factors . factor I see coagulation factors . factor II see coagulation factors . factor III see coagulation factors . factor IV see coagulation factors . factor V see coagulation.

Osteoklast – Wikipedia

Osteoclast differentiation and activation Natur

Osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor. Gene. OSCAR. Organism. Homo sapiens (Human) Status. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. Function i. Regulator of osteoclastogenesis which plays an important bone-specific function in osteoclast differentiation.. INTRODUCTION. Bone mass is maintained by coordinating the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts with bone-forming osteoblasts (1-4).Accordingly, an imbalance of bone remodeling arising as a consequence of increased osteoclast activity leads to bone-wasting states in diseases ranging from osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis to periodontitis and bone metastasis (1-3)

ناقضة العظم - ويكيبيدي

Background: Bone is a dynamic tissue that continuously undergoes the modeling and remodeling process to maintain its strength and firmness. Bone remodeling is determined by the functioning of osteoblast and osteoclast cells. The imbalance between the functioning of osteoclast and osteoblast cells leads to osteoporosis Introduction. Bone homeostasis relies on the balance between the resorption of bones by osteoclasts and formation of bones by the osteoblasts. 1 Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption, a process critical to maintaining healthy bones. 2 Dysregulation of osteoclastic bone resorption could cause osteoporosis and malignant osteolytic bone disease. 3 Osteoporosis is a common. Mice lacking the proto-oncogene c-fos develop the bone disease osteopetrosis. Fos mutant mice were found to have a block in the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts that was intrinsic to hematopoietic cells. Bone marrow transplantation rescued the osteopetrosis, and ectopic c-fos expression overcame this differentiation block. The lack of Fos also caused a lineage shift between.

Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts - YouTub

(Similarities and Differences between Osteoblast and Osteoclast) Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts are the two types of bone cells which constitute the bone tissue or the osseous tissue. The bone is a metabolically active tissue consisting of several types of cells among which the Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts are the most important ones Osteoclast differentiation has been reported to be related to increased intracellular ROS levels in osteoclast lineage cells. Sudachitin, which is a polymethoxyflavone derived from Citrus sudachi, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various functions in mammalian cells Start studying Osteoclast. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools A Magnetic-Field Guided Interface Coassembly Approach to Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Nanochains for Osteoclast-Targeted Inhibition and Heterogeneous Nanocatalysis. Li Wan, Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, iChEM, Fudan. In RAW264.7 cells, GLY extracts significantly inhibit sRANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation at a concentration of more than 0.05 mg/mL. In experimental periodontitis, administering GLY extracts significantly decreases the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in the alveolar bone on day 4, and significantly inhibits the ligature-induced bone.

Figure 3 The differentiation of RAW264.7 cells to osteoclast was enhanced when culturing with KPC-exosome, compared with MPDC-exosomes. ( A-D) Culture in conditioned medium from KPC-exo 10ug/mL promoted the osteoclast differentiation, where MPDC-exosomes did not work and RANKL as positive control, scale bar, 200 μm GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently shown to be activated by certain cannabinoids and by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). However, the physiological role of GPR55 remains unknown. Given the recent finding that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 affect bone metabolism, we examined the role of GPR55 in bone biology. GPR55 was expressed in human and mouse osteoclasts and osteoblasts.

Cancers | Free Full-Text | The Osteoclast in Bone

Synonyms for osteoclast in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for osteoclast. 1 word related to osteoclast: bone cell. What are synonyms for osteoclast The video current documentation depicts the sculptures at original location Exchange Flags. Teresa Solar presents a newly commissioned outdoor installation, titled Osteoclast (I do not know how I came to be on board this ship, this navel of my ark) (2021). Composed of five kayaks, each sculptural piece reflects on the shape of a human bone

Recent advances in osteoclast biolog

There are three special types of cells that are found only in the bone. These cell names all start with OSTEO because that is the Greek word for bone os·te·oc·la·sis. 1. The process of dissolution and resorption of bony tissue. 2. Surgical fracture of a bone, performed to correct a deformity. [ osteo- + Greek klasis, breakage (from klān, to break ).] American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition Osteoclasts break down bone matrix through phagocytosis. Predictably, they are derived from the monocyte (macrophage) cell line. Think of osteoclasts as the bone version of the macrophage. Their activity occurs along their ruffled border, and the space between the osteoclast and the bone is known as Howship's lacuna Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a mitochondrial membrane GTPase and regulates mitochondrial fission. In this study, we found that the cytokine RANKL increased the expression of DRP1 and its receptor proteins, Fis1, Mid49, and Mid 51, during osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages Osteoclast Cells. These are the cells that are primarily responsible for dissolving bone tissue, also known as resorption. They do not arise from osteoprogenitor cells; instead, white blood cells that normally have immune system function (monocytes) fuse together to create the osteoclasts

Consistently, osteoclast formation of spleen cells derived from TRAP-DN-c-Jun TG mice was markedly lower than that of wild-type littermates (Figure 1E). In contrast, the spleen cells of TRAP-DN-c-Jun TG mice differentiated into macrophage-like cells just as well as did those of wild-type mice (Figure 1F) Osteoclasto que exhibe muchos núcleos dentro de su citoplasma espumoso. El osteoclasto es una célula multinucleadas, móvil y gigante que degrada, reabsorbe y remodela huesos. Al igual que el osteoblasto, está implicado en la remodelación de hueso natural. Deriva de células hematológicas

Monocytes Cartoons, Illustrations & Vector Stock ImagesBasic Mechanisms Responsible for Osteolytic and

Osteoclast fusion and bone loss are restricted by

Cultured osteoclast cells, which had been genetically manipulated to overexpress TRAP, produced higher amounts of ROS, demonstrating a link between the amount of TRAP synthesised and the amount of ROS generated. There is clear evidence that reactive oxygen radicals are required for active resorption at the lacuna Osteoclast differentiation is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, which may not be coupled despite pathway crossover. Compared with monocyte precursors, mature osteoclasts contain larger mitochondria with more abundant cristae and considerable structural remodeling (48, 49).The formation of mitochondrial clusters around the nucleus may be crucial for the efficient provision of.

First, osteoblasts are involved in the distribution of osteoclast precursors in bone. Second, osteoblast-producing M-CSF can be replaced by IL-34 in osteoclastogenesis. Third, osteoblasts produce Wnt5a, which enhances osteoclast differentiation through the upregulation of RANK expression Osteoclast-mediated inflammatory bone resorption is a major cause of skeletal diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. 32, 33 However, the mechanisms regulating osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption under inflammatory conditions are complex and have not been well elucidated. In this study, EEIG1 was identified as a positive.

Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath | Basicmedical KeyBone Tumors | Basicmedical Keypancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - Humpath

Osteoclast Definition of Osteoclast by Merriam-Webste

Osteoblast-Osteoclast activity. The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the Drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD [12]) and theCaenorhabditis elegans protein SMA (from gene sma for small body size [13]). The name is a portmanteau of the two IL-6 stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in long term human marrow cultures by inducing IL-1 release. J Immunol. 1990;144(11):4226-30 67. Devlin R D, Reddy S V, Savino R. et al. IL-6 mediates the effects of IL-1 or TNF, but not PTHrP or 1,25(OH)2D3, on osteoclast-like cell formation in normal human bone marrow cultures These data suggest that CTLA-4 is an anti-osteoclastogenic molecule that directly binds osteoclast precursor cells and inhibits their differentiation. These findings are an attractive explanation for the anti-erosive effect of abatacept, a CTLA-4 immunoglobulin fusion protein used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. CTLA-4 (CD152) is a. Bone homeostasis is maintained by osteoclasts that absorb bone and osteoblasts that form bone tissue. Menopausal osteoporosis is a disease associated with aging and hormonal changes due to menopause causing abnormal activation of osteoclasts, resulting in a decrease in bone density. Existing. Objectives Circulating myeloid precursors are responsible for post-natal osteoclast (OC) differentiation and skeletal health, although the exact human precursors have not been defined. Enhanced osteoclastogenesis contributes to joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known pro-osteoclastogenic factor. Herein, we investigated the interplay.

Medical Definition of Osteoclast - MedicineNe

Three new flavonoid glycosides (1-3), 11-hydroxyhainanolidol (4), and a new dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan glycoside (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Cephalotaxus koreana Nakai, along with 19 known flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic evidence, primarily NMR and MS. Twenty-four compounds were isolated, and among these isoscutellarein 5-O. Sarcomatoid Cholangiocarcinoma with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Developing within a Normal Liver: Report of a Case and Review of Literature. Evangelina Florou 1, Reena Ravikumar 1*, Rosa Miquel 2 and Andreas Prachalias 1. 1 Department of HPB Surgery, Kings College Hospital, UK 2 Department of Pathology, Institute of Liver Studies, Kings College. Osteocyte definition is - a cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance Sexual dimorphism of the skeleton is well documented. At maturity, the male skeleton is typically larger and has a higher bone density than the female skeleton. However, the underlying mechanisms for these differences are not completely understood. In this study, we examined sexual dimorphism in the formation of osteoclasts between cells from female and male mice The osteoclast inhibitory effects such as reduction in total DNA and osteoclast number of Ti-TAN were superior to Ti-pDOP. Next, osteoclast cell morphology on Ti, Ti-pDOP and Ti-pTAN was examined . Actin ring formations were observed on Ti and Ti-pDOP, but multinucleated osteoclasts on Ti-pTAN portrayed minimal podosome clusters and actin rings

intraductal tumors of the pancreas - Humpath

Bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclast activity and reduce bone resorption. For prevention of steroid-induced osteoporosis, the dosage is identical at either 5 mg once daily or 35 mg once weekly. For all bisphosphonates, it is important to counsel patients on dosage to prevent gastrointestinal side effects and promote efficacy Definition of osteoclast in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of osteoclast. What does osteoclast mean? Information and translations of osteoclast in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web Osteoclast formation was associated with the increase in mitochondrial activity and ATP concentration, which were further increased in the presence of AA. Importantly, the stimulatory effect of AA was only evident at early phase of osteoclastogenesis, whereas at the late stage AA significantly accelerated osteoclast death Conditional knockout of Usp34 in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) or in osteoclasts leads to elevated osteoclast function and low bone mass. Mechanically, we identify that USP34 restrains NF-κB signaling by deubiquitinating and stabilizing the NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα) The osteoclast is the sole cell that resorbs bone and is central in pathologic situations, where bone destruction is intricately involved. Osteosarcoma cells are of the osteoblastic lineage, the latter of which is characterized by cells secreting the osteoclast-inducing factor, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand

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